I've been studying French for quite a while now, and yet I still have trouble! I was wondering if any fluent speaker could help me with some of these, of which I only have a basic understanding:
I understand that these can be quite difficult to explain, but I would really appreciate the help.
du = some; for masculine nouns
du pain = some bread (or just bread, quite nuanced)
de la = some; for feminine noun
de la tarte = some pie (or piece of pie, find out with context)
de = some; for words with an apostrophe pronounce "l'"
de l'or = some gold, de l'eau = some water (both genders: or is masculine, eau is feminine.)
des = some; plural
des batons = some staves
elle = she
il = he
both il and elle are nominative.
le = masculine demonstrative pronoun, when talking about a particuliar thing.
"le chien" is one specific chien, as oppposed to "un chien"
la = feminine demonstrative pronoun
"la ferme" a specific ferme, as opposed to "une ferme" which is just a random ferme.
both are accusative
lui = Him
Lui is the indirect object. In English we use the indirect object when we use the prepositions "to" or "for". For instance, "I gave this gift to him" or "I wrote this poem for her". We can also use different word order: "I gave him this gift" or "I wrote her this poem." French uses lui for both "him" and "her", but it is always used as an indirect object.